Feed-Forward Estimation in Panel Duration Models
Abstract: I propose a semi-parametric mixed proportional hazard model with grouped responses to estimate the effect of covariates in a panel (longitudinal) setup where individuals may undergo multiple duration spells. The model allows for right-censoring and unobserved heterogeneity. For Estimation Purposes, I derive a closed-form feed-forward density for each spell duration conditional on previous spells. The parameters are then estimated by maxim likelihood estimation. I prove the identifiability of the model under minor assumptions, and further discuss the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators. Monte Carlo simulations show that the proposed estimator performs well in finite samples and is robust to different choices of the baseline hazard function and different distributional assumptions of the unobserved heterogeneity.
Prohibition and Criminalization of Torture in the Iranian and International Law
Abstract: This paper examines the torture laws and jurisprudence in the Iranian and international law and draws a comparison between the two. First, the grounds for the prohibition of torture and the link to human dignity is assessed in the two legal systems. Second, whether the prohibition is absolute or open to derogations in the situations of public emergency comes to the fore. Third, the criminalisation of torture in the Iranian and international criminal law and the elements of the crime of torture is looked into. The paper concludes that the two systems have different grounds for prohibition yet come to the same conclusions with regards to the prohibition of torture and its absolute nature. Regarding the criminalisation, Iran’s anti-torture laws are rather outdated and not comprehensive enough compared to the international laws and stand in need of updates.
Is ICC Biased Agianst Africa? A Lega-Statistical Review
Work under progress. Introduction attached.
A Review of Persian Mystical (Sufi) Prose
Abstract: A survey of the mystical (Sufi) literary prose written in Persian between 1050-1400 A.D. I compare and analyze 21 Sufi Mystical books from the golden era of Persian Sufi literature to find the common and specific elements and motifs, and to sketch a timeline for the development of the literature. I conclude that the Sufi literary prose does not follow the features common to the Persian prose of the era and undergoes an independent evolutionary course. Accordingly, I divide the history of Sufi prose into three periods and specify the peculiarities of each period.
A Comparative Study of the Islamic Persian Sufism and the Christian Mysticism
Abstract: Persian literary theory defines Sufism as an aesthetical and artistic view to theology. This point of view makes the Persian Sufism comparable to the Christian mysticism in terms of substance and practice. After giving a comparative account of the two phenomena, we conclude that although having similar principles, Persian Sufism manifested itself as more of an artistic and literary movement originating from divine inspirations with less emphasis on asceticism and self-denial, whereas the Christian mysticism put focus more on the practicality of the ascesis and less on the aesthetic form.